research question

3_ What kind of western and Chinese websites talk about SCS and how?

Approaches Positive Positive/Negative Negative Neutral 1984,Orwell Black Mirror References Website type “Social Credit System” Research query: Social network cega.berkeley Research and educational institute Public corporation Private company Online enciclopedia Non-profit org Newspaper Magazine/Science-tech Magazine/Business Magazine/General Internet Portal Government Channel Blog
Description Protocol Data


The visualization helps to understand that while the western results from are controversial, the Chinese ones of simply give information. We arrived at this result by exploring the topic searching for it on; but since Social Credit System is a Chinese system, we also wanted to grasp some oriental information, therefore we also search for the term on, the Chinese search engine. As we wanted to see which kind of portals talked about Social Credit System, we analyzed the first 50 results for both the search engines. Then, we clusterized them according to the type of website. The visualization helps to identify straightaway the comparison between the western results and the Chinese results, so for example we can quickly see that there are no website that comes from the government in the western research, while in the Chinese one the majority of the websites are governmental; or again, in the western results there are plenty of references about both Black Mirror and Orwell, while in the Chinese counterpart there are very few. From this analysis we then wanted to explore which kind of approach each website has regarding the theme. We read each article and we categorized them based on the different kind of approaches. The huge gap existing between the two parts regarding the type of approaches led us to the next protocol.


example of protocol

With a Firefox browser, in incognito mode, we search for the query Social Credit System. We put the first 50 links in our dataset and we started to read each one of them. Since we wanted to keep the duality, we did the same on the Chinese counterpart of,, analyzing also the first 50 results. We categorized them into different website types and different approaches.


Data Source: Google, Baidu
Timestamp: 01/12/2018
View Data (500Kb)

For each of the 100 pages, we defined website type, approach, title and date. After this first articles’ analysis we discovered that we could find recurring cultural references to Black Mirror and Orwell, so we decided to add these two issues to our dataset to highlight their presence, strongly different in Google and Baidu websites.